What is Kyasanur Forest Disease?
Kyasanur forest disease – an acute infectious natural focal disease from the group of hemorrhagic fevers, caused by an arbovirus of group B, transmitted by ticks of the genus Haemaphysalis; characterized by sudden fever lasting 7-14 days, symptoms of general intoxication, moderate hemorrhagic syndrome; occurs in South India, similar to Omsk hemorrhagic fever.
Causes of Kyasanur Forest Disease
The causative agent is a virus of the family Togaviridae, of the genus Flavivvirus, belonging to arbovirus and antigenically close to the virus of Omsk hemorrhagic fever and tick-borne encephalitis.
The reservoir and sources of the pathogen: among warm-blooded animals – squirrels, rats, porcupines, monkeys, as well as ticks Haemaphysalis spinigera.
A person becomes infected by the bite of an infected tick.
The natural susceptibility of people is high.
The disease is endemic in the forest zone of Shimoga and Canara districts of Karnataka, India. Predominantly adult men are ill, visiting the territory of a natural hearth. Diseases occur mainly from December to May, with a peak in February – April.
Symptoms of Kyasanur Forest Disease
The incubation period lasts 3 to 8 days.
The main clinical signs are fever lasting up to 2 weeks, headaches and muscle aches. In severe cases, gastrointestinal bleeding, hemoptysis develop. Often, after a period of relief (day 7-21), the second wave of fever begins with symptoms of meningoencephitis. The healing process lasts up to 4 weeks. Mortality can reach 10%.
Prevention of Kyasanur Forest Disease
Preventive measures: protection from tick attacks. Immunoprophylaxis measures are not developed.