What is Mumps?
Mumps (synonyms: mumps, mumps; mumps – English; Mumps – mute; parotidite epidemique – French) – an acute viral disease caused by paramyxovirus and is characterized by fever, general intoxication, an increase in one or more salivary glands, often damage to other organs and central nervous system.
The disease was first described by Hippocrates and allocated them in an independent nosological form. Frequent lesions of the central nervous system and orchitis in mumps are noted by Hamilton (1790).
Mumps virus was first isolated from the patient’s blood by L. Kilham (1949), and B. Bjervat (1973) was isolated from testicular tissue during their biopsy. Fundamental research in the field of this disease was carried out by domestic scientists I.V. Troitsky, N.F. Filatov, A.D. Romanov, A.A. Smorodintsev, A.K. Shubladze et al.
Causes of Mumps
The causative agent of mumps belongs to paramyxoviruses (family Paramyxoviridae, genus Paramyxovirus). The causative agent of mumps was first isolated and studied in 1934 by E. Goodpascher and C. Johnson.
Virions are polymorphic, rounded virions have a diameter of 120-300 nm. The virus contains RNA, has hemagglutinating, neuraminidase and hemolytic activity. The virus agglutinates red blood cells of chickens, ducks, guinea pigs, dogs, etc. In laboratory conditions, the virus is cultivated on 7-8-day-old chicken embryos and cell cultures. Primarily trypsinized cell cultures of Guinea pig kidney, monkeys, Syrian hamster, chicken embryo fibroblasts are sensitive to the virus. Laboratory animals are insensitive to the mumps virus, only in monkeys it is possible to reproduce a disease similar to human mumps. The virus is unstable, is inactivated by heating, by ultraviolet radiation, by contact with fat solvents, 2% formalin solution, 1% lysol solution. An attenuated strain of the virus (L-3) is used as a live vaccine. The antigenic structure of the virus is stable. It contains antigens that can cause the formation of neutralizing and complement-binding antibodies, as well as an allergen that can be used to produce an intradermal test.
The source of infection is only a person (patients with manifest and inapparent forms of mumps). The patient becomes contagious 1-2 days before the onset of clinical symptoms and in the first 5 days of the disease. After the symptoms disappear, the patient is not contagious. The virus is transmitted by airborne droplets, although the possibility of transmission through contaminated objects (such as toys) cannot be completely ruled out.
The susceptibility to infection is high. More often children are ill. Male persons suffer from mumps 1.5 times more often than women. The incidence is characterized by pronounced seasonality (seasonality index 10). The maximum incidence occurs in March-April, the minimum – in August-September. After 1-2 years, periodic incidence increases are observed. It occurs in the form of sporadic diseases and in the form of epidemic outbreaks. In institutions, outbreaks last from 70 to 10 ° days, giving separate waves (4-5) with gaps between them equal to the incubation period. In 80-90% of the adult population, antipartite antibodies can be found in the blood, which indicates a wide spread of this infection (in 25% of those infected, the infection is inapparent). Following the introduction of live vaccine immunization, the incidence of mumps has significantly decreased.